Jake Almond


To extract copper from ore broken near Dolgellau, North Wales, c 1898 Frank Elmore developed a technique of selectively transferring minerals from water into oil. Frank and Stanley Elmore began to exploit bulk-oil flotation internationally, but soon alternative schemes emerged in Australia and Europe and the brothers became involved in damaging litigation with rivals. Frank Elmore invented an improved technique, using less oil and with vacuum-generated bubbles; vacuum flotation was installed in North Wales c 1907 and applied in Australia, Norway and Canada. From 1910 related systems of froth flotation beyond the Elmore's control were introduced in the Americas and elsewhere. As the 20th century progressed, both the scale and scope of flotation treatment increased, so that it became the preponderant mineral-separating method. The pioneering contributions of the brothers are set in context.


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How to Cite
The Elmore brothers and the flotation process for separating minerals. (2022). Historical Metallurgy, 34(1), 31-46. https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/284