Marcos Martinón-Torres Agnese Benzonelli Zofia Anna Stos-Gale Richard Henry


Metal ingots are infrequent in the archaeological record, but when they do occur they can offer important insight into aspects of metallurgical technology and international trade. Here we present the elemental and isotopic characterisation of two post-medieval discoidal ingots found in Bromham, Wiltshire (UK), which are identified as Reißscheiben. Made of pure copper with a very low impurity content except for a small amount of lead, they are interpreted as resulting from copper refining, possibly following desilvering by liquation. The lead isotopic signature of the metal points to the Harz Mountains of Saxony as the source, which is precisely the region where Georgius Agricola recorded the production of these types of ingots in the mid-16th century.


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How to Cite
Martinón-Torres, M., Benzonelli, A., Stos-Gale, Z., & Henry, R. (2021). Argentiferous copper extraction and post-medieval metals trade: identification and origins of post-medieval Reißscheiben ingots found in Wiltshire, England. Historical Metallurgy, 52(1), 38–47. Retrieved from