Historical Metallurgy https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home <div><strong>Support this Journal!</strong></div> <div>The Historical Metallurgy Society can only provide <em>Historical Metallurgy</em> as a platinum Open Access resource through the support of its members. Become a part of our community! Join the Society today to keep free publication for Historical and Archaeo-metallurgy. Full details on membership rates and options are available via our <a href="https://historicalmetallurgy.org/">website</a>. Members may opt to receive<em> Historical Metallurgy</em> and our newsletter, <em>The Crucible</em>, in printed form if they wish.</div> <div> </div> <div> <p>online ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2755-0249">2755-0249</a> print ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/0142-3304">0142-3304</a></p> </div> <p> </p> <p> </p> The Historical Metallurgy Society en-US Historical Metallurgy 0142-3304 A Late Bronze Age hoard of bronzes rediscovered, probably from Palaepaphos in Cyprus https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/1 <p>Two groups, each of six bronze tools, which are thought to be parts of a single Late Bronze Age hoard probably found in the area of Palaepaphos in Cyprus, were studied and their composition determined by pXRF. Three of the objects carry small cross-shaped marks. Despite their lack of archaeological context, they are considered significant finds. Seven of the objects are of a type known as ‘ploughshares’ but here the implied use is questioned and a possible function as mining tools is proposed.</p> Vassos Karageorghis Andreas Charalambous Vasiliki Kassianidou Copyright (c) 2021 Vassos Karageorghis, Andreas Charalambous, Vasiliki Kassianidou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 51 61 Initial study of metallurgical technology from western Tinogasta, Catamarca, NW Argentina (1st-15th centuries CE) https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/4 <p>We undertook an initial study of the metallurgical technology developed in the Fiambalá and Chaschuil regions between the 1st and 15th centuries CE. In so doing we compiled data on macroscopic observations of metal objects deposited in museums, evidence of mineral resources within the regions, and archaeological studies of metal pieces recovered from archaeological sites. This included visual analysis of geometric and surface characteristics and scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) to determine the chemical composition of the alloys. Collating this evidence allowed us to characterise the metal objects’ production system and the different socio-political contexts in which they appeared. Furthermore, it highlighted the role played by western Tinogasta in the supply of tin, of vital importance in copper-tin metallurgy.</p> Norma Ratto Marcela Pichipil Horacio De Rosa Javier Amado José Baum Copyright (c) 2021 Norma Ratto, Marcela Pichipil, Horacio Manuel De Rosa, Javier Amado, José I Cechetto Baum https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 62 75 Transfer of blast-furnace finery-forge technology to New England https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/5 <p>John Winthrop Jr brought industrial-scale ironmaking to Massachusetts for the London-based Undertakers of Ironworks in New England beginning with a blast furnace blown-in at Braintree in 1645 followed by a nearby finery forge. Within a year a new location for the furnace was sought and the Braintree furnace abandoned for reasons never satisfactorily explained. Archaeological evidence now shows that inadequate, unreliable waterpower caused the failure at Braintree, locates the site of the finery forge, and demonstrates that a blast furnace built near the forge would have succeeded. Winthrop’s preoccupation with alchemy and pansophy contributed to the failure of the Braintree furnace. The resulting loss of the Undertakers’ capital left the replacement works at Saugus burdened with debt. Winthrop’s 1657 second blast-furnace finery-forge project made iron but not profits for the New Haven Colony. Only in the mid-18th century was this technique successfully revived in New England.</p> Robert Gordon Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Gordon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 76 83 Grey or white pig? The importance of the starting material whether fining iron in charcoal hearths, clay pots or puddling furnaces https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/9 <p>This is the fourth and final paper on the importance of the type of iron which came from an 18th-century blast furnace. It deals with fining, turning the pig iron into malleable or wrought iron. Whether fining using charcoal or coal, the most important factor was whether the pig iron starting point was a high-silicon grey iron or a low-silicon white one. Both the chemical influence of silicon and the physical state that it induced was important. A grey iron contained graphite and melted to a proper liquid which was much more difficult to oxidise than the pasty mix that a white iron produced. Carbon in the form of graphite (in grey iron) was much slower to diffuse than when it was in the form of iron carbide (in white iron). These key differences influenced the fining processes in the early charcoal finery hearths, and in the potting and stamping processes, as much as they did in puddling.</p> Richard Williams Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 84 103 Metallography in archaeology and art by David A Scott and Roland Schwab https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/7 <p>All reviews reflect the opinions of the reviewers. Any correspondence relating to the content of book reviews should be addressed direct to the reviewers.</p> Peter Northover Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 104 105 Abstracts https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/12 <p>The abstracts are edited by Janet Lang. The Honorary Editors<br>would like to acknowledge her continuing help, and that of others<br>who contribute abstracts. Where no source is given, the abstract<br>has been adapted from that provided by the author(s) of the paper.<br>Other abstracts relating to archaeometallurgy can be found in the<br>British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography, available at <a href="http://%20www.biab.ac.uk">http://</a><br><a href="http://%20www.biab.ac.uk">www.biab.ac.uk</a>, and in Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts,<br>available on line at <a href="http://aata.getty.edu/Home">http://aata.getty.edu/Home</a>.</p> Janet Lang Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 53 2 106 112