Duncan Miller Simon Hall

Abstract

It is nearly a century since the first description of indigenous tin mines at Rooiberg. Sporadic archaeological research has not demonstrated tin mining prior to the mid-2nd millennium AD at Rooiberg, and the presence of tin bronzes at sites such as Mapungubwe and Bosutswe prior to this date could implicate other sources of tin. Nevertheless, all the southern African archaeological tin ingots analysed for their trace element composition are thought to have originated at Rooiberg, but this is not yet proven. The actual technology of tin production at Rooiberg is poorly understood, and is complicated by the production of arsenical copper and possibly also iron in the immediate vicinity. This paper summarises the published literature, presents new analyses of tin and copper production waste collected on a brief reconnaissance
visit, discusses the technology of metals production at Rooiberg in the light
of these new data, and poses questions for ongoing research.

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Keywords
References
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How to Cite
Rooiberg revisited – the analysis of tin and copper smelting debris. (2021). Historical Metallurgy, 42(1), 23-38. https://hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/201
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